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Legal Framework

Intellectual Property Laws in Romania

I. Introduction and Importance of Intellectual Property

Welcome to the intricate world of Intellectual Property (IP). As an entrepreneur, you're likely brimming with inventive ideas and creative solutions. These intangible assets – your unique business processes, distinct branding, software code, or innovative product designs – constitute your business's intellectual property.

In today's competitive business landscape, understanding and protecting your IP is paramount. Not only does it give you a competitive edge, but it also safeguards your business from potential litigation and fosters a sense of trust with your clients. In essence, the right protection for your IP could be the difference between a thriving enterprise and one constantly embroiled in legal battles.

Whether you're a tech startup, a digital enterprise, or a traditional brick-and-mortar store, this guide is designed to demystify the complexities of IP laws in Romania, and more broadly, within the European Union (EU).

II. Types of Intellectual Property

To better manage and protect your Intellectual Property (IP), you must first understand its diverse categories. Let's delve deeper into these:

Trademarks: Trademarks serve as identifiers for your business, encompassing your company name, logo, and any distinctive phrases or slogans employed in your marketing efforts. A robust trademark distinguishes your brand and facilitates easy identification of your products or services by your customers. Registering a trademark with the appropriate authorities fortifies your legal protection and establishes your ownership of the mark. State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania, or with the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) for broader protection, you gain the exclusive rights to use it commercially.

Patents: A patent protects a new invention or a significant improvement on an existing product or process. If your business is involved in creating innovative solutions, a patent can prevent others from making, using, or selling your invention without consent. Patents require a rigorous application process, involving thorough examination of the invention's novelty, inventiveness, and industrial applicability. Once granted, a patent offers 20 years of exclusive rights.

Copyright: Copyright protects original works of authorship, including literature, music, films, and artistic performances. In the digital realm, it also extends to software code and website content. Copyright protection is automatic upon the creation of the work; you don't have to apply or register. However, in the event of disputes, registered copyrights with ORDA in Romania, or with a reputable international copyright office, can serve as definitive proof of ownership.

Trade Secrets: These are confidential pieces of information that give your business a competitive edge. They could encompass anything from customer lists and supplier contracts to pricing strategies, unique business methodologies, formulas, or algorithms. Trade secrets are safeguarded under Romanian law as long as their confidentiality is maintained. Businesses should implement stringent measures, such as non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) and secure data handling practices, to uphold this confidentiality.

III. Contracts and NDAs: Tools and Traps for IP Protection

Intellectual Property (IP) protection goes beyond mere identification and registration. It is essential to set out clear IP ownership clauses in your contractual arrangements and to enforce Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) to safeguard confidentiality.


Every contractual agreement with employees, freelancers, suppliers, or partners should have detailed IP clauses. Such clauses need to specify the rights and obligations concerning any IP that may arise from the business relationship. Here's what they should generally cover:

  • Assignment of Rights: This part ensures that any IP created by an employee or a contractor during the course of their work automatically belongs to your business. Explicitly stating this in the contract helps to avoid any future disputes over IP ownership.
  • Licenses: If your business deals with third-party IP, the contract should state the scope and terms of its use, whether it's an exclusive or non-exclusive license, the geographical territory, and the duration of the license.
  • Warranties: These ensure that the party creating the IP declares it to be original, does not infringe on others' rights, and has the right to assign it.
  • Infringement: The contract should outline the procedures in the event of an IP infringement, specifying the party responsible for taking action and bearing the costs.

Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs):

NDAs, also known as confidentiality agreements, are legal contracts that prohibit parties from sharing proprietary or confidential information. They are crucial when you need to disclose sensitive information, such as trade secrets, to employees, investors, or potential partners. Here are some points to consider:

  • Breadth: Be cautious about the scope of the NDA. An overly broad NDA may scare off potential partners or be unenforceable in court.
  • Duration: NDAs should define the period during which the information must remain confidential. The length should be reasonable and justifiable.
  • Enforcement: Be aware that enforcing NDAs can be costly and time-consuming. If a breach occurs, you'll need to prove that the information was confidential, the agreement was in place, and the breach caused damage.
  • GDPR Compliance: In drafting NDAs, ensure they're compliant with data protection regulations like GDPR. The agreement should clearly define the types of information considered confidential, excluding any personal data unless its handling complies with GDPR requirements.

IV. Leveraging Free Tools and Resources for IP Protection

Managing Intellectual Property (IP) can seem daunting, particularly for startups and small businesses with limited resources. Fortunately, there are many free tools and resources available to help you effectively navigate IP protection.

  1. WIPO IP Portal: The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) offers a comprehensive portal with resources covering various aspects of IP. It includes a global brand database for checking existing trademarks and a patentscope search service to investigate existing patents.
  2. EUIPO's eSearch plus: This tool from the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) lets you check the status of European trademarks and designs. It’s essential for ensuring your trademark or design is unique before applying for registration.
  3. OSIM Databases: The State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania maintains databases for patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. These resources enable you to check if your intended intellectual property already exists within the country.
  4. Google Patents: This global patent search tool covers multiple patent offices and can help you identify existing patents similar to your invention.
  5. Open Source Software: Open source tools such as Apache's OpenOffice can assist in drafting documents, including NDAs, contracts, and IP registration applications. They can be a cost-effective solution for document creation and management.
  6. Online Legal Services: Platforms like LegalZoom and and Rocket Lawyer offer free legal documents, including basic versions of NDAs and IP assignment agreements.
  7. Free Consultations: Many law firms and IP consultancies offer free initial consultations. You can use these to get guidance on your IP strategy, and understanding legal requirements, and the registration process.
  8. Educational Resources: Websites like Coursera and and EDX offer free online courses on IP. These can be valuable for understanding the basics and developing a sound IP strategy.

V. Engaging Professionals: When to Seek Expert Advice

While free tools and resources are undoubtedly useful, IP protection involves complex legal principles and procedures that might necessitate professional expertise. Engaging professional help at the right time can save your business from costly mistakes and disputes down the line.

When to Seek Expert Advice

  1. Patent Drafting: Crafting a patent application is a complex task requiring a deep understanding of patent laws and the technical details of the invention. Professional patent attorneys can help draft a robust patent application that can withstand examination and potential legal challenges.
  2. Dispute Resolution: If you find yourself in a dispute over IP rights, or if someone infringes on your IP, it's time to engage a lawyer. Professional IP attorneys can guide you through the dispute resolution process and represent your interests effectively.
  3. IP Strategy: A well-crafted IP strategy is integral to leveraging your IP for business growth. IP consultants can help design a strategy that aligns with your business goals, considering aspects like competitive positioning, potential collaborations, or licensing opportunities.
  4. Contract Drafting: While basic contracts and NDAs can be drafted using templates, any agreement involving significant IP matters should be drafted or reviewed by a lawyer. They can ensure the agreement provides adequate protection and is legally sound.
  5. GDPR Compliance: If your business involves handling personal data, professional advice can be invaluable in ensuring compliance with data protection laws, including GDPR. This is particularly important when drafting NDAs or contracts involving personal data.

Navigating the intricacies of IP law can be challenging, but you don't have to go it alone. When in doubt, remember that professionals are available to help guide you. Investing in expert advice at the right time can help secure your business's most valuable assets and pave the way for a successful future.

VI. Conclusion: Building a Robust IP Protection Strategy

Intellectual Property (IP) protection is not a luxury but a necessity in today's increasingly digital and competitive business landscape. Understanding your IP rights and obligations, leveraging available resources, and seeking professional advice when necessary are key to building a robust IP protection strategy.

Here are the key takeaways from this guide:

IP takes various forms - trademarks, patents, copyright, and trade secrets. Understanding each form can help you identify and protect your IP effectively.

Contracts and NDAs are critical tools for safeguarding your IP. Carefully draft these documents to establish clear IP ownership and protect sensitive information.

Free resources like WIPO IP Portal, EUIPO's eSearch plus, OSIM Databases, and Google Patents can assist in managing your IP.

Despite these resources, don't shy away from seeking professional help for complex matters like patent drafting, dispute resolution, strategic planning, or GDPR compliance.

Intellectual Property is, in essence, the lifeblood of your innovative enterprise. Protecting it is protecting your business's future.

And remember, at Incorpo.roWe're here to help. Our team of consultants, lawyers, and technical experts are ready to guide you through every step of your IP protection journey. So don't hesitate to get in touch with us for any help or advice. We are here to support you as you transform your brilliant ideas into protected assets and, ultimately, a thriving business.

Stay tuned for more insightful articles in our "Legal Framework" series to help you navigate the legal landscape for your business.