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Legal Lens

What are Electronic Signatures?

Stefan-Lucian Deleanu


The digital age has revolutionized many aspects of our daily lives, including how we validate documents and authenticate identity. Electronic signatures are at the forefront of this transformation, offering a digital alternative to traditional handwritten signatures. Despite their growing ubiquity, the adoption of electronic signatures has been fraught with legal ambiguities and technical challenges. This article aims to explore electronic signatures from multiple perspectives: technological, legal, and business, to provide a holistic understanding of this complex yet essential digital tool.

Key Questions Addressed:

  • What is the history behind the development of electronic signatures?
  • What types of electronic signatures exist, and how do they differ in terms of security and legal recognition?
  • What are the legal implications and challenges in interpreting and using electronic signatures?
  • How are businesses adapting to and benefiting from the use of electronic signatures?

A Brief History

The Dawn of Digital Trust

Electronic signatures have been around in some form since the early days of the internet and digital technology. The introduction of HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) by Netscape Communications in 1994 was a milestone, as it incorporated cryptography and paved the way for secure digital transactions, including electronic signatures.

Legislation: Catching Up with Technology

While the technical aspects of electronic signatures have been in place for over two decades, legal frameworks have taken time to catch up. In Europe, the first significant legislative move was the Directive 1999/93/EC, which laid the foundation for Romania's Law 455/2001. However, the directive was not comprehensive enough to address all the nuances of electronic transactions.

The real breakthrough came with the introduction of the eIDAS regulation (Regulation EU No 910/2014) in the European Union. This regulation standardized electronic signatures and offered a framework for further standardization across Europe. It also influenced electronic signature laws in various other jurisdictions, ensuring a more uniform approach to digital authentication and validation.

Local Providers and Market Evolution

In Romania, several local providers emerged in the wake of Law 455/2001, serving as pioneers in the electronic signature market. However, many of these providers have since shifted to European accreditation, reflecting the evolution and consolidation of the market. The list includes:

  • S.C. Trans Sped S.R.L
  • S.C. Digisign S.A.
  • S.C. Certsign S.A.
  • S.C. Alfatrust Certification S.A.
  • S.C. Centrul de Calcul S.A.

Types of Electronic Signatures

Simple Electronic Signatures (SES)

At its most basic, a Simple Electronic Signature (SES) is any form of electronic data (like clicking an "I agree" button or using a PIN) that is attached to or logically associated with a document. While it offers a basic level of authentication, it lacks robust security features.

Advanced Electronic Signatures (AdES)

A step above SES, Advanced Electronic Signatures (AdES) uniquely identify and link the signatory with the signed document. It offers additional security by providing cryptographic evidence of the signed data. This type of signature ensures that any subsequent change to the data is detectable.

Qualified Electronic Signatures (QES)

The pinnacle of electronic signature types, Qualified Electronic Signatures (QES), offers the highest level of security and is considered the digital equivalent of a handwritten signature. It is issued by a qualified trust service provider and carries a presumption of correctness, backed by robust encryption technologies.

Electronic signatures are gaining increased acceptance in legal circles, but the lack of a unified legal framework can often lead to misinterpretations. Different jurisdictions have various laws and regulations governing the use of electronic signatures. In the EU, the eIDAS regulation offers a comprehensive legal framework. However, the regulation allows for some variations in national laws, which can create complications.

The Question of Intent

A significant concern in the legal interpretation of electronic signatures is the establishment of intent. Traditional handwritten signatures are universally considered a mark of consent or approval. Electronic signatures, on the other hand, can be used in various ways—perhaps to confirm receipt or to validate a document's authenticity. Therefore, understanding the intent behind the electronic signature becomes crucial in legal proceedings.

Liability and Risk

Using electronic signatures comes with its share of legal risks. Qualified Trust Service Providers (QTSPs) issuing electronic signatures assume legal responsibilities, including the risk of civil, administrative, and even criminal liabilities for incorrectly identifying a signatory.

Practical Applications in Business

Streamlining Operations

The adoption of electronic signatures can drastically reduce the time and effort required in manual signing and document verification. This digital shift is especially beneficial for businesses that deal with a high volume of contractual agreements or legal documents.


The initial setup cost for implementing an electronic signature system is often outweighed by the long-term savings. Businesses can reduce expenditures on paper, ink, and postage. Moreover, the reduced need for physical storage space adds to the cost benefits.

Enhancing Customer Experience

In an age where speed and convenience are paramount, electronic signatures provide a quick and easy way for customers to complete transactions. This improved user experience can be a competitive advantage for businesses looking to differentiate themselves.

Global Business and Compliance

For businesses operating in multiple jurisdictions, understanding and complying with different electronic signature laws can be challenging. However, the benefits of a streamlined, digital process often justify the efforts required for compliance.

Electronic Seals

While electronic signatures are used for authenticating individuals, electronic seals serve to authenticate legal entities like corporations. These seals are useful in scenarios where corporate validation is required but individual authentication is not.

Timestamps: The Digital Notary

Timestamps serve as a digital notary by providing a verifiable date and time for electronic documents. This is especially important for legal and financial documents where timing can be critical.

Future Technologies: Blockchain and Smart Contracts

Emerging technologies like blockchain and smart contracts are poised to revolutionize how electronic signatures are generated and verified. These technologies promise to make the process more secure, transparent, and tamper-proof.

## Conclusion

In the span of just a few decades, electronic signatures have transitioned from being a topic of legal uncertainty to a cornerstone of digital transformation. As technology continues to evolve, so does the versatility and application of electronic signatures, shaping them into an indispensable tool for the modern world. Whether it's streamlining business processes or providing a secure and verifiable means of establishing intent and authenticity, electronic signatures are increasingly becoming the norm rather than the exception.

However, like any technology, electronic signatures are not without their challenges. Legal interpretations, international compliance, and the responsibility of qualified trust service providers are topics that continue to evolve. This necessitates a concerted effort from lawmakers, technologists, and businesses to ensure a secure, efficient, and universally accepted system.

Emerging technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts are already showing potential in reshaping the landscape. They promise a future where electronic transactions are not just convenient but also transparent and immutable.

As we continue to march towards an increasingly digital future, electronic signatures will undoubtedly play a pivotal role in shaping how we validate, authenticate, and store our transactions and agreements. They may not have reached their full potential yet, but one thing is certain: electronic signatures are here to stay, and their impact will only grow in the years to come.

And there we have it—a comprehensive guide on electronic signatures, touching on their history, legal implications, practical applications in business, and a look into what the future might hold.

Thank you for joining us on this journey through the digital evolution of signatures!