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CyberGuard

Physical Security Risk Analysis for Romanian Enterprises

Alexandra Ardelean

Physical Security Risk Analysis: How Does It Protect Your Business?

Definition and Purpose

Physical Security Risk Analysis (PSRA) is a systematic process of identifying, evaluating, and addressing risks that can affect the physical security of a facility. The purpose of PSRA is to ensure the protection of assets, valuables, and individuals within the facility, as well as to prevent or minimize the potential impact of security incidents.

Physical Security Risk Analysis (PSRA) is an essential component of the physical security management system and must be conducted by all entities that possess assets or valuables of any kind, regardless of the nature of their share capital, organizational form, association, or ownership of assets or valuables.

Importance of Physical Security Risk Analysis

Physical Security Risk Analysis (PSRA) offers several advantages to entities that perform it, including:

  • Risk Reduction: Identifying and evaluating risks to take preventive measures.
  • Asset Protection: Preventing or minimizing the impact of incidents on assets and valuables.
  • Personnel Safety: Preventing accidents and incidents for individuals within the facility.
  • Building Trust: Demonstrating a commitment to security, thereby increasing credibility.
  • Legal Compliance: Avoiding penalties by adhering to applicable laws.

Physical Security Risk Analysis (PSRA) is governed by a series of regulatory acts, including:

  • Law No. 333/2003: Security of facilities, assets, valuables, and protection of individuals.
  • Government Decision No. 301/2012: Methodological norms for implementing Law No. 333/2003.
  • Instruction No. 9/2013: Detailed procedure for conducting risk analysis.

These regulatory acts establish the legal and regulatory framework for conducting PSRA, as well as the requirements and conditions that risk assessors for physical security must meet.

Discover Who Is Required to Conduct Mandatory Risk Analysis

Entities Subject to Physical Security Risk Analysis

According to Law No. 333/2003, the following entities are required to conduct physical security risk analysis (PSRA):

  • Commercial companies, regardless of the nature of their share capital and organizational form.
  • Ministries and other specialized bodies of central public administration.
  • Public authorities and institutions.
  • National companies and commercial companies with entirely or mostly state-owned capital.
  • National research and development institutes.
  • Other organizations that possess assets or valuables.

Who Is Exempt from Mandatory Analysis?

There are a few exceptions to the mandatory requirement for conducting physical security risk analysis (PSRA), as stipulated in Government Decision No. 301/2012. These exceptions apply to the following entities:

  • Entities engaged in national defense, public order, and national security activities.
  • Entities engaged in nuclear activities.
  • Entities engaged in transportation activities.
  • Entities engaged in healthcare activities.
  • Entities engaged in education activities.
  • Entities engaged in cultural activities.
  • Entities engaged in sports activities.
  • Entities engaged in tourism activities.
  • Entities engaged in public catering.
  • Entities engaged in trade activities.
  • Entities engaged in service activities.

Entities exempt from the mandatory requirement for conducting physical security risk analysis (PSRA) must take measures to ensure the security of the assets and valuables they possess, as well as the individuals within their facilities. These measures may include:

  • Installation of alarm and video surveillance systems.
  • Hiring security personnel.
  • Implementation of security procedures.
  • Conducting periodic security checks.

How Is Physical Security Risk Analysis Conducted?

Stages of Physical Security Risk Analysis

Physical Security Risk Analysis (PSRA) is conducted in several stages, as follows:

  1. Defining PSRA Objectives: In this stage, the objectives of PSRA are established, which may include identifying physical security risks, evaluating risks, and addressing risks.
  2. Data Collection: In this stage, data about the entity, the assets and valuables owned by the entity, as well as the physical security risks to which the entity is exposed, are collected. Data can be collected through questionnaires, interviews, and on-site inspections.
  3. Data Analysis: In this stage, the collected data is analyzed to identify physical security risks to which the entity is exposed. Risks can be classified based on the likelihood of occurrence and potential impact.
  4. Risk Evaluation: In this stage, the identified risks are evaluated to determine the level of risk. The level of risk is determined based on the likelihood of the risk occurring and the potential impact of the risk.
  5. Risk Mitigation: In this stage, measures are established to mitigate the identified risks. Risk mitigation measures may include risk avoidance, risk reduction, risk transfer, and risk acceptance.
  6. Preparation of the Physical Security Risk Analysis Report: In this stage, a report is prepared that presents the results of PSRA. The report should include a description of the entity, a list of assets and valuables owned by the entity, a list of identified physical security risks, an assessment of the risks, and a list of risk mitigation measures.

Risk Analysis Methodologies

There are several risk analysis methodologies that can be used to conduct physical security risk analysis (PSRA). The most commonly used methodologies include:

  • HAZOP Methodology (Hazard and Operability Study): This methodology is based on the systematic analysis of processes and operations within the entity to identify physical security risks.
  • FMEA Methodology (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis): This methodology is based on the analysis of equipment and system failure modes within the entity to identify physical security risks.
  • ETA Methodology (Event Tree Analysis): This methodology is based on the analysis of event trees to identify physical security risks.
  • FTA Methodology (Fault Tree Analysis): This methodology is based on the analysis of fault trees to identify physical security risks.

Tools and Techniques Used in Physical Security Risk Analysis

There are several tools and techniques that can be used to conduct physical security risk analysis (PSRA). The most commonly used tools and techniques include:

  • Questionnaires: Questionnaires can be used to collect data about the entity, the assets and valuables owned by the entity, and the physical security risks to which the entity is exposed.
  • Interviews: Interviews can be used to collect data about the entity, the assets and valuables owned by the entity, and the physical security risks to which the entity is exposed.
  • On-Site Inspections: On-site inspections can be used to collect data about the entity, the assets and valuables owned by the entity, and the physical security risks to which the entity is exposed.
  • Document Analysis: Document analysis can be used to collect data about the entity, the assets and valuables owned by the entity, and the physical security risks to which the entity is exposed.
  • Modeling and Simulation: Modeling and simulation can be used to analyze physical security risks and evaluate the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures.