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How to Draft a Great Contract: A Comprehensive Guide

Stefan-Lucian Deleanu


Understanding the Fundamentals of Contract Creation

Contractele reprezintă coloana vertebrală a relațiilor de afaceri, contribuind la stabilirea încrederii și la definirea clară a așteptărilor între părți. Redactarea unui contract excelent este esențială pentru succes, iar acest lucru începe cu înțelegerea fundamentelor creării unui contract.

Importance of Contracts in Business Transactions and Relationships

Contracts are essential in business transactions and relationships as they establish legally binding obligations and expectations between parties. They set out the terms and conditions of a deal, ensuring that everyone understands their responsibilities. A contract can also help to prevent disputes and misunderstandings.

According to a study done by the International Association for Contract & Commercial Management (IACCM), almost 9 out of every 10 companies experience contract-related problems. It is, therefore, essential that companies pay close attention to the contract creation process.

Essential Elements of a Contract

The fundamental components of a contract encompass the offer, acceptance, consideration, and adherence to legal requirements. For a contract to be legally enforceable, there must exist an offer presented by one party and accepted by the other. Additionally, there should be a mutual agreement wherein one party agrees to provide something of value, referred to as consideration, in return for receiving something else.

The legality element means that the terms of the contract must not violate any laws or regulations. Contracts that have illegal terms are not enforceable in court.

Importance of Clear Communication and Mutual Understanding

Clear communication is critical when creating a contract. It ensures that both parties have a mutual understanding of what is expected from each other. When there is mutual understanding, parties are more likely to comply with their obligations under the contract.

A study by PwC found that 48% of companies experienced communication-related disputes within their contracts. In some cases, these disputes led to time-consuming and costly litigation. Clear communication can help avoid such disputes and ensure both parties receive what they expect from the contract.

The Role of Good Faith

Good faith refers to a sincere intention to deal fairly and honestly with the other party in a contract. It is an essential element of contract creation. Parties entering into a contract must demonstrate good faith and honesty in their dealings with each other. If a party shows bad faith, then it could lead to the contract being unenforceable.

Significance of Written Contracts over Oral Agreements

In general, written contracts are preferable to oral agreements as they provide clear evidence of what was agreed upon. They help to prevent misunderstandings, especially in complex business transactions. Written contracts also serve as a point of reference in cases of disputes between parties.

According to studies, written contracts are eight times more likely to be enforced in court than oral agreements. This is because they provide clear evidence of what was agreed upon and leave little scope for interpretation.

Consulting a lawyer is essential when drawing up a contract. This is because lawyers have expertise in drafting and interpreting contracts. They can help ensure that the contract complies with applicable laws and regulations.

Legal counsel can also highlight potential problem areas that the parties may have overlooked. This can help the parties avoid potential disputes arising from the contract.

Adhering to E-A-T Principles

When creating a contract, it is important to adhere to the E-A-T (Expertise, Authoritativeness, Trustworthiness) principles. According to these principles, a good contract should be drafted by someone with relevant expertise in the subject matter (Expertise). The person or organization drafting the contract should be authoritative in the field (Authoritativeness). The content of the contract should be trustworthy, clear and well-researched (Trustworthiness).

Prin respectarea acestor principii, părțile pot asigura faptul că contractul este bine redactat și aplicabil în instanță.

In conclusion, the creation of a good contract is essential for business success. Parties must ensure that they have a clear understanding of the essential elements of a contract, the importance of clear communication, mutual understanding, good faith, and adhering to E-A-T principles. Legal counsel should also be consulted to ensure that the contract is legally enforceable. By following these guidelines, parties can create contracts that establish trust, prevent disputes, and help ensure the smooth running of business transactions and relationships.


The Steps in Drafting an Effective Contract

Drafting an effective contract is a multi-step process that requires attention to detail and foresight. Following these steps will help ensure that your contract is clear, enforceable, and serves both parties' interests.

Determine if all parties are eligible to participate in a contract

A contract is only valid if all parties are legally eligible to participate. In most cases, this means that all parties must be of a certain age and have the legal capacity to enter into a contract. According to LegalMatch, legal capacity refers to an individual's ability to understand the terms of the agreement and its legal consequences. For example, a person with a mental disability may not have the legal capacity to enter into a contract. It is essential to ensure that all parties are legally eligible, or the agreement will be invalid.

Define the consideration: what each party is exchanging in the agreement

Consideration refers to what each party is receiving or giving up in the agreement. This can be in the form of money, services, or goods. According to RocketLawyer, without valid consideration, a contract is not enforceable. The consideration must be something of value, and both parties must agree on it. The consideration should be clearly outlined in the contract.

Establish clear terms that outline the rights and obligations of each party

The terms of the contract should be clear and concise, outlining each party's rights and obligations. This includes what each party will do, what will happen if one party breaches the agreement or fails to meet its obligations, and how disputes will be resolved. According to Nolo, clear terms can help avoid misunderstandings and disputes down the road. It is essential to review and ensure that the terms are fair and reasonable for both parties.

Consider including a confidentiality clause if sensitive information is involved

If the contract involves sensitive information, such as trade secrets or personal data, consider including a confidentiality clause. This clause prohibits one party from sharing the information with third parties. According to UpCounsel, this clause can help protect sensitive information and prevent breaches of confidentiality.

Add dispute resolution and termination clauses to handle potential conflicts or changes in circumstances

Unexpected changes or conflicts can arise during the life of a contract. Dispute resolution and termination clauses aid the parties in managing these situations. According to Lawpath, dispute resolution clauses outline how conflicts or disputes will be addressed, such as through mediation or arbitration. Termination clauses, on the other hand, outline the process of ending the contract if one or both parties fail to fulfill their obligations.

Ensure the contract adheres to applicable laws and regulations

The contract should adhere to all applicable laws and regulations. According to LawDepot, this includes ensuring that the contract does not violate any laws or regulations, including state and federal laws. An attorney may be able to help ensure compliance with all applicable laws.

Sign and date the contract with all parties involved

Once all parties have reviewed and agreed to the terms of the contract, it is essential to sign and date it. According to LegalZoom, this demonstrates that all parties have agreed to the terms of the agreement, making it legally binding. It is important to have all parties sign and date the contract to avoid any misunderstandings later.

Drafting an effective contract is a vital part of any business transaction. It helps ensure that all parties understand their rights and obligations, and provides a clear path forward for resolving disputes. Following these steps can help ensure that the contract is effective and enforceable.


Best Practices for Clear and Precise Contract Language

A well-drafted contract should be easy to understand, yet precise enough to avoid ambiguity. Following best practices for clear and precise contract language can help minimize disputes and misunderstandings down the line.

Contracts are legal documents, but that does not mean they have to be written using arcane or convoluted language. In fact, using plain English where possible can help avoid ambiguity and make the contract easier to understand. According to a study by the Plain Language Association International, using plain language can reduce misunderstandings and errors by up to 80%. However, it is important not to sacrifice enforceability or legal concepts in the process. Some terms may require a specific legal definition to accurately reflect the parties' intent. Therefore, while it is important to keep the language simple and clear, it is equally important not to oversimplify important concepts.

Rely on active tense and precise words to convey the intended meaning

Using active tense and precise words can help ensure that the intended meaning of a contract provision is accurately conveyed. Active tense puts the focus on the subject of the sentence, making it clear who is responsible for performing an action. Precise words help ensure that each party's obligations and rights are clearly defined. For example, using "shall" instead of "may" can help avoid ambiguity around whether an action is mandatory or optional.

Familiarity with common contract terminology and legal concepts can be helpful in ensuring that contracts are drafted accurately and efficiently. It is important for those involved in contract drafting to be aware of legal terms of art, such as "indemnification" or "assignment", as well as any industry-specific terminology that may be relevant. Familiarity with these terms can help ensure that a contract accurately reflects the parties' intent and avoids any ambiguity. Additionally, awareness of common legal concepts such as jurisdiction and arbitration can help ensure that any disputes that arise from the contract are resolved efficiently.

Get study advice from experts like Ken Adams and Bryan Garner on drafting clear text.

Ken Adams and Bryan Garner are renowned experts in legal drafting, offering valuable insights to anyone involved in drafting contracts. Adams provides resources such as his book, *A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting*, which details best practices. Meanwhile, Garner has published several books on legal writing and teaches courses on the subject. By studying their work, contract drafters can enhance their skills and better understand how to draft contracts clearly and effectively.

Utilize tools such as BriefCatch to review your work for clarity and consistency

Tools like BriefCatch can be extremely useful in reviewing contracts for clarity and consistency. BriefCatch scans a document for phrases that may be unclear or confusing, providing suggestions for how to rephrase them in simpler, more direct language. This can help ensure that a contract is easy to understand and avoids any ambiguity.

Continuously improve your grammar and writing skills through practice and education

Improving your grammar and writing skills is an ongoing process. By continuously practicing your writing through mock contracts or other exercises, you can improve the clarity and precision of your writing over time. Additionally, taking classes or courses focused on legal writing or grammar can be extremely helpful in improving your skills.

Always review the entire contract after each revision to ensure all changes are understood

When making revisions to a contract, it is crucial to review the entire document to ensure a comprehensive understanding of all modifications. This proactive approach helps prevent future misunderstandings or conflicts. A thorough review ensures that each provision accurately represents the intentions of the involved parties and guards against any unintended outcomes.

In conclusion, contracts play a vital role in business and legal relationships. By following best practices for clear and precise contract language, parties can ensure that their intentions are accurately reflected in the document, minimizing any potential for disputes or misunderstandings. By using plain English, relying on active tense and precise words, familiarizing themselves with common contract terminology and legal concepts, studying advice from experts, using tools like BriefCatch, continuously improving their grammar and writing skills, and always reviewing the entire document after each revision, contract drafters can improve the quality of their work and ensure that contracts are clear and enforceable.


Contract negotiations can be a intricate dance of offers, counteroffers, and trade-offs. Knowing how to efficiently manage this process is vital to achieving a mutually advantageous agreement.

Understanding the importance of preparation and research before entering into negotiations is key.

Prior to entering negotiations, it is imperative to engage in thorough research and preparation. Negotiators ought to possess a clear understanding of their industry, their counterpart's objectives and motivations, as well as their own standing. By analyzing various scenarios and potential outcomes, negotiators can gain a precise understanding of their Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA). As outlined by Harvard Law School, possessing a BATNA is indispensable in any negotiation as it delineates the boundaries of one's negotiating power. Preparation additionally encompasses defining clear objectives, establishing priorities, and pinpointing areas where compromise may be feasible.

Strategies for presenting an initial offer that leaves room for negotiation

When making an initial offer, negotiators should be realistic and avoid making extreme offers. The initial offer should leave enough room for negotiation while also establishing the tone of the negotiation. A high initial offer may be perceived as aggressive or unrealistic, leading to a stalemate in the negotiation process. According to Forbes, negotiators should consider presenting a range of offers that satisfies both parties' interests.

Handling counteroffers: when to accept, counter or walk away

Counteroffers are a common occurrence in the negotiation process. Negotiators must evaluate each counteroffer thoroughly before responding. If the counteroffer is acceptable, it should be accepted promptly to avoid delays in the negotiation process. If the counteroffer is unacceptable, negotiators should take the time to evaluate the proposal and consider making a counteroffer that reflects their interests. Walking away from negotiations is another option if both parties cannot reach an agreement that satisfies their interests. According to Harvard Law School, walking away from negotiations should be treated as a last resort and should be done while maintaining a respectful and cooperative attitude.

Balancing the interests of both parties while maintaining a cooperative atmosphere

Negotiations should be approached with the goal of reaching a mutually beneficial agreement. To achieve this, negotiators must balance both parties' interests while maintaining a respectful and cooperative atmosphere. This involves active listening, clear articulation of concerns, and effective communication. According to Harvard Law School, negotiators should refrain from focusing on their own interests and consider their counterpart's interests. Maintaining a balanced approach will help prevent the negotiation from turning into a competition or argument.

Tips for productive discussions during negotiations: practice active listening, and express your concerns clearly.

Effective communication is key in any negotiation process. Active listening, clear articulation of concerns, and effective feedback can help prevent misunderstandings and foster cooperation. According to Inc, negotiators should listen actively to their counterpart's interests and concerns, expressing empathy and understanding. Clear articulation of concerns involves expressing priorities and goals in a concise manner, avoiding ambiguity.

In some cases, negotiations may become complex or require legal expertise. In such cases, seeking legal counsel is advisable. Legal counsel can provide negotiators with an objective view of the negotiation process, highlight potential legal risks, and provide guidance on complex issues. According to Entrepreneur, involving legal counsel also demonstrates the negotiator's commitment to the negotiation process.

Keeping records of all negotiation communications and agreed-upon changes

Negotiations involve multiple discussions, offers, counteroffers, and agreed-upon changes. Keeping records of all the communications and changes is essential in maintaining a clear overview of the negotiation process. Clear records also help prevent misunderstandings and legal conflicts. According to Harvard Law School, maintaining records is also helpful in analyzing negotiation outcomes and identifying potential areas of improvement.

In conclusion, effective contract negotiation requires thorough preparation, clear communication, and a balanced approach that considers both parties' interests. Negotiators should be flexible, willing to compromise, and recognize when to involve legal counsel. By following these tips, negotiators can increase their chances of reaching a mutually beneficial agreement.


Contracts are legally binding agreements, so it's essential to ensure they comply with relevant laws and regulations. Seeking professional assistance can help both parties navigate the complexities of contract law and minimize potential risks.

Researching applicable laws for your specific contract type and jurisdiction

Before drafting a contract, it is crucial to research the applicable laws pertaining to your specific contract type and jurisdiction. Laws can vary significantly from state to state and country to country, so ensuring compliance with all relevant regulations is essential. For instance, certain states have specific legislation regarding the enforceability of non-compete agreements. Failing to adhere to applicable laws can result in costly legal battles or regulatory penalties.

Identifying potential risks and finding mutually agreeable solutions to address them

Identifying potential risks is another important legal consideration when drafting a contract. Both parties should work collaboratively to identify areas of potential risk and find mutually agreeable solutions to address them. For example, if one party is concerned about meeting project deadlines, the parties can agree to a penalty for missed deadlines or include a clause allowing the non-breaching party to terminate the contract if certain deadlines are missed.

Considering arbitration as a cost-effective alternative to litigation for dispute resolution

Litigation can be exceedingly costly, so it's important to consider alternative dispute resolution options. Arbitration can be an effective, cost-efficient alternative to litigation. According to data from the American Arbitration Association, arbitration is frequently resolved more quickly than litigation, with an average of just 11 months from filing to resolution. Additionally, arbitration hearings are typically less formal and more efficient than a trial, minimizing legal fees and costs.

When crafting international contracts, choosing the right legal jurisdiction is critical. An international contract should be governed by a jurisdiction that both parties find agreeable. As JD Supra points out, the chosen jurisdiction can heavily influence the resolution of any future disputes, so this decision warrants careful consideration during the drafting process.

Consulting a lawyer registered with a bar association for expert advice on drafting contracts

Contracts can be exceedingly complex, and it's often wise to seek expert advice. A lawyer registered with a bar association can provide expert guidance on drafting contracts that comply with relevant laws and regulations. Additionally, working with an attorney can help identify potential risks that parties may have overlooked or not even considered.

Ensuring all mandatory points are included in the contract, such as dispute resolution and termination clauses

When drafting a contract, it's essential to ensure all mandatory points are included in the agreement. This typically includes dispute resolution and termination clauses. Including these clauses can help the parties reach an agreement on how to resolve any disputes that may arise during the course of the contract.

Finally, keeping a copy of the signed contract is crucial for future reference and legal protection. In the event of any disputes, having a signed copy of the contract is essential evidence to support claims or resolve disputes. Additionally, retaining a copy can help the parties ensure compliance with all relevant regulations over time.

In conclusion, seeking professional assistance when navigating complex legal issues and drafting contracts is critical to minimizing potential risks and ensuring regulatory compliance. By working collaboratively and ensuring all mandatory points are included in an agreement, parties can reach mutually beneficial outcomes while protecting their interests.